What are Coxarthrosis and Total Hip Arthroplasty?
Coxarthrosis is degenerative arthritis of the hip joint. Over time, degeneration or deformation of the joint cartilage occurs and the bone structure under the cartilage is exposed, causing pain with the joint movement. This degenerative process, accompanied by bone formation or destruction, synovitis, and synovial effusion, leads to increased symptoms of pain, limitation of movement, and increasing restrictions on the patient’s daily activity.
Coxarthrosis has two main causes, primary and secondary.
Primary coxarthrosis is about half the cases, and the cause is unknown. Lifestyle and genetic factors are accused. It is more common in women.
Secondary coxarthrosis develops secondary to metabolic diseases such as developmental hip dysplasia, acetabular development disorder, traumatic hip dislocation, and femoral neck fracture or acetabular fracture, congenital cox vara, coxa valga, Perthes disease, recurrent micro-traumas, diabetes mellitus. Rheumatic diseases can cause coxarthrosis, and steroids used in treatments can cause coxarthrosis with degenerative changes in the hip joint. In addition, coxarthrosis develops secondary to disruption of the arterial nutrition of the femoral head (avascular necrosis).
Pain in coxarthrosis is the first and main complaint. This pain may spread to the thigh and groin area, and may also present as knee pain. Pain increases with movement and joint burden. Over time, this pain is supplemented by increased degenerative processes and limitation of movement with the development of contractures. Depending on the severity and progression of the disease over time, the patient may find it difficult to perform daily activities and may become condemned to the home.
After the diagnosis of coxarthrosis, medical treatment, weight loss, and lifestyle changes should be carried out. In addition, physical therapy may be added to conservative treatment. However, these treatments will be effective at certain stages of the disease, and over time the disease will become resistant to these treatments. In cases where the pain cannot be managed with medical treatments, total hip arthroplasty (hip replacement) surgery is required to perform daily activities and to lead a comfortable life without pain.
Total hip arthroplasty:
Total hip arthroplasty surgery is the procedure of replacing and covering the degenerated femoral head and acetabulum with metal implants. In hip arthroplasty, the femoral head is removed from the femoral neck, and the degenerative cartilage in the acetabulum is cleaned by means of instruments specifically designed for this procedure. The implant, which is made in accordance with the normal hip anatomy on the femur, thigh bone, is implanted in the acetabulum in the same way to form the hip joint with an interface.
In the postoperative period, the patients are mobilized early and the rehabilitation process begins. The hospitalization period is approximately 4-5 days. Discharged patients are called for a follow-up at 6, 12 weeks and then at 6-month intervals. The recovery of the patient’s normal quality of life and the full recovery of his daily activities vary from 6 weeks to 12 weeks, although it is mainly dependent on the patient.
A hip arthroplasty with appropriate indication will provide the patient with the quality of movement he longs for.